In The name of Allah
Ghadir is the very event in which the policy of humankind up to the Dooms Day was determined by the Holy Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him and his household). Therefore studing about ghadir and making research in this field is the most important issue and the obligatory duty for every Muslim and those who are looking for the staright path of Allah and the way towards Happiness and Blessing.
Today we have inherited the treasure of Ghadir which is at its highest state. Ghadir is the luminous light shining on the world beyond the imagination of enemies. Our obligatory mission therefore, is to propagate Ghadir by different means and various methods.
Event of Ghadir
In the last year of the life of the Hoy Prophet of Islam (Peace be upon him and his Household), God almighty wanted him to perform two divine commands.
They were the obligatory pilgrimage to Mecca by the attendance of the Holy Prophet and the declaration of Imamate and Leadership of 12 Innocent Imams. The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) therefore, accomplished these decrees completely; He performed all the rites of the pilgrimage and taught them to the people and at the same time made them mentally prepared for the declaration of the next Imams.
A GLANCE AT THE EVENTS OF GHADIR KHUM
The following is a concise comprehensive presentation of the events preceding and following the occasion of Ghadir Khum, and the way of addressing that sermon. Let us start with the general declaration of obligatory performance of the ritual pilgrimage to Mecca, pursuant to a particular mandate issued by God.
General Invitation to Pilgrimage and Decleration of the Imamate and Leadership
Ten years after the general immigration to Medina, the Divine order was revealed to the glorious Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F). It was concerning the last questions of Islam: the ritual pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) and the Twelve's Imamate.
As the general pilgrimage was declared, more than 120 thousand Muslims moved towards Mecca from every place. The Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) as well, associated his companions and directed towards Mecca. He arrived there on the fifth of Dhu‟l-Hijja.
Title of Amirul-Muminin
After the Muslims went back to Mecca from the rites of pilgrimage, Gabriel, the angel, revealed that Allah‟s Messenger gives Ali Bin Abi Talib exclusively title of “Amirul-Muminin”. Accordingly, the Prophet (p.b.u.h) ordered the companions for greeting Ali and addressing him as "Amirul-Muminin". Therefore they stood in rows and greeted Ali (P.B.U.H) saying: "Peace be upon you, Amirul-Muminin". As a matter of fact, this ceremony was frequently held during the Prophet's lifetime.
General Summon in Ghadir Khum
After accomplishment of the pilgrimage rites, God revealed "O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do not do it, then you have not delivered any of His messages, and Allah will protect you from the people, surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people".
Hence the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) summoned Bilal and ordered him of announcing that all people should be in Ghadir Khum by the next day.
Ghadir knum" is a place situated next to Al-Johfa. It is the point where roads to Al-Medina, Egypt, Iraq, Syria and Najd meet. Pursuant to a Divine Command, the place was selected because of availability of the water and some trees. It was the point at which caravans used to reside during journeys.
For many centuries, a mosque named "Ghadir Mosque" in which ceremonies of worshipping and visitation were held, was there as a remembrance of these days.
As they were surprised by the Prophet‟s unusual direction toward that place, people prepared themselves to catch him after they had heard the declaration.
How the Prophet Delivered the Sermon!
As people could no longer wait, Bilal summoned them for the collective prayer. They gathered in lines before the pulpit, and the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) led the Dhuhr –Midday collective prayer.
People, then, noticed the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) taking his place on the pulpit. He asked Ali to be on his right side just before the commencement of the sermon. Ali (a.s) stood to the Prophet's right, but a little lower.
Summary of the Prophet's Sermon in Ghadir
The one-hour sermon of Ghadir, orated by the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F), can be divided into eleven chapters:
In the first chapter, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) introduces praise and thanks to Allah, the Exalted, hinting at His divine attributes competence and mercy.
In the second chapter, he moves to the main topic directly. The Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) reveals necessity of conveying a remarkable affair concerning Ali Bin Abi Talib, "He -God- has warned that if I shun conveying what He had revealed to me, regarding Ali, I shall not be considered as conveyor of His mission".
In the third chapter, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) declares imamate and the general leadership of the twelve imams succeeding him, which is one of the most remarkable topics of the Prophet's sermon.
He also assertes their perfect representation of Allah and the Apostle in legislating and determining what is legal and what is not.
He states a good deal of Imam Ali‟s virtues.
In the fourth chapter, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) takes Ali from the arms, raising him and shouting, "He whoever I was his master, Ali should be his master. 0 Allah! Accede to whomever accedes to him, and oppose whomever opposes him, and give victory to whomever supports him, and disappoint whomever disappoints him".
He, then, confirms that perfection of the religion and completion of the Divine grace have been nothing other than the religious leadership of the twelve sinless Imams.
In the fifth chapter, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) speaks frankly, "He that shall not take him and his successors, who are his sons, as leader and Imam, till Day of Resurrection and standing before Allah, their deeds are disregarded in this world and in the Hereafter, and in Hell shall be abiding…” Then again a good deal of Ali's virtues is rendered thereafter.
In the sixth chapter, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) draws people's attention to the divine ire. After reciting a Quranic verse comprising curse and menace of torture, he declares:
By Allah, those intended in this verse5 is none but a group of my companions whose names and lineage I do recognize but I have been given the order of overlooking them.
The Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F), then, warns against masters leading to Hell: "Allah and I shall be free from such men". The Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) declares that imamate shall be usurped by accursed people.
In the seventh chapter, reciting a number of verses respecting occupants of the Paradise, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) asserts that followers of Muhammad's family are intended. In a like course he asserts that abiders of the hell are enemies of Muhammad's household.
In the eighth chapter, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) avers some remarkable affairs respecting Imam Al-Mahdi
5 Holy Quran, 4:47.
(Sacrificed be our souls for him.) He mentions his descriptions and private manners, and carries glad tidings to the believers by foreshowing a morrow predominated by equity on the hands of Al-Mahdi.
In the ninth chapter, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) declares:
"Immediately after finishing this sermon, I do call forth upon you to shak hands with me, as a sign of swearing allegiance to Ali, and shaking hands with him thereafter. I have sworn allegiance to Allah, and Ali has sworn allegiance to me. I am to command you swear allegiance to him. This is Allah's mandate.
In the tenth chapter, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) exposes some doctrine rulings. He, then, says:
"Legal and forbidden matters are too much to be counted in this current state. But, I have been ordered of taking your allegiance by shaking hands as a sign of your admition to what I have conveyed from Allah, the Exalted, respecting Ali and the Disciples succeeding him. Their imamate is prevailing till it is sealed by Al-Mahdi, up to the day on which Allah shall be met".
In the last chapter of the sermon the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) imparts people what to say:
Compliance with the twelve Imams, swearing evading any alteration and change of the declaration of the Prophet, conveying the Prophet's words to the next generations and the absent individuals. The Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) finishes his sermon by supplicating the Lord for the good of the believers and accursing the deniers of his instructions".
Two practical steps on the pulpit
Although it is commonly familiar that speech is practiced by words only, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) performed two practical steps that drew sights toward him so noticeably. "It is essential to provide these two steps before exhibiting the sermon in brief:
First: Raising and identifying Ali A.S
For eradicating any suspicious matter that may occur in future, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) identified Ali (P.B.U.H) considerably. This procedure was taken just after manifesting the status of Ali (P.B.U.H) that he is the successor and the religious and political leader.
The Prophet uttered the statement, "None shall have the competence of explaining the warning matters, and explicating the exegeses of the Quran except the one whose hand I am seizing and raising upward, and whose arm I am lifting, and whom I am elevating with my two hands";
He took Ali (P.B.U.H) from the arms. Ali raised his hands towards the heavens. In that situation, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) raised Ali up till Ali's feet attached his knees. Simultaneously, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) stated:
"He whoever I was his master, this Ali should be his master. 0 Allah! Accede to whoever accedes to him and oppose whoever opposes him and give victory to whomever supports him and disappoint whoever disappoints him".
Second: Swearing of allegiance with hearts, tongues besides hands
Due to the great crowds of people, it was impracticable to swear allegiance by the customary process of shaking hands with the person to whom allegiance is declared. Some may retreat acting so. Therefore, in the
last part of his sermon, the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) directed, "O People! You are too many to shake hands with me in one time. God, the Exalted, ordered me of taking your recognition in words, to what I have accredited to Ali, and the successive imams of his and my progeny, exclusively and bindingly. I have informed you that my progeny would be from his line. Hence, you all should utter:
"We do listen, obey, please and submit to what you have conveyed from your and our Lord regarding our imam, Ali Amirul-Muminin, and imams of your and his progeny... "
Covenant and pledge for them are taken from our hearts, souls, tongues, minds, hands and entities. If not attained by hand, it will be recognized by tongue. We convey it to the near, as well as the remote, including our sons and relatives".
Immediately after the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) finished uttering these words, the crowds repeated. Thus, the public declaration of allegiance was accomplished to Ali. Soon after giving the sermon, the Prophet
(P.B.U.H&H.F) obtained the crowds' allegiance by shaking hands.
The Main Point in Ghadir Sermon
The main point in the whole sermon of Ghadir is that Allah Himself chose and appointed Ali ibn Abitalib as the successor of the Prophet and the leader of the Muslims and what the Holy Prophet did concerning the succession of Imam Ali was only delivered God‟s revelation to people.
The Hypocrites in Ghadir
As soon as hypocrites anticipated the imminent decease of the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) and his decisive affair of nominating his successor they took a number of basic procedures. One of their plans was assassinating the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F).
Cabal of assassinating the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F)
Fourteen men planned for assassinating the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) in his way to Mecca after accomplishing the Farewell Pilgrimage (the last ritual pilgrimage performed by the Prophet). They planned for waylaying the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) at the summit of Harsha Mountain.
When he reached that summit, they wanted to throw big rocks on his camel, which would naturally knock him down. Immediately, they wanted to attack the Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) in the darkness and hurry up
to disappear among people so that they would not be recognized.
The Lord informed His Prophet (P.B.U.H&H.F) of their cabal, and promised to protect him.